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“Instead of saying that bankruptcy jurisprudence is different from other areas of the law in that multiple inconsistent rules may each be simultaneously true and that “truth” lies in the tension between irreconcilable opposites; this article asserts that the application of bankruptcy rules can be viewed as the simultaneous solution of multiple non-linear equations (i.e. there are multiple “correct” solutions from which the judge can select), …The nature of bankruptcy as a multiple solution process can be seen in a number of ways. We say that bankruptcy judges have “discretion” concerning a wide variety of decisions; “discretion” clearly indicates a variety of potential “right” answers. In our legal opinions concerning enforceability of loan documents, a standard exception to the single reasoned answer is the exception for “bankruptcy, insolvency, and the enforcement of creditors’ rights generally.” The interposition of bankruptcy clearly impacts the ability to provide a reasoned answer from a single major premise. This inability to provide a single answer is characteristic of courts of equity.”

MacDonald, MacDonald & McLeod, “Chapter 11 As a Dynamic Evolutionary Learning Process In a Market With Fuzzy Values,” 1993-1994 Norton Survey of Bankruptcy Law, Pages 14-16.