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“In the bankruptcy area, this set of (“chaotic”) attractors is the best way to visualize tension between four conflicting basic principles, each of which is concurrently true in bankruptcy and leads to different results. A good example would be “Bankruptcy follows state law property rules,” “Bankruptcy favors reorganization,” “Bankruptcy will punish a failure to bargain,” and “Equality is equity.” Potential solutions group around these four basic principles; the solutions arising from the application of those basic principles are infinitely changing but in a patterned way.

…it takes a very small bump to move from the influence of one attractor to another. A key skill for the bankruptcy practitioner is the timing and finesse in administering the bumps; another key skill is correctly advising the client of the risks in the turbulent zone and cutting deals to reduce risk.”

MacDonald, MacDonald & McLeod, “Chapter 11 As a Dynamic Evolutionary Learning Process In a Market With Fuzzy Values,” 1993-1994 Norton Survey of Bankruptcy Law, Pages 18-19.